the juvenile justice system in malaysia

and the Subordinate Courts. Diversion. the highest court for Malaysia just below the Privy Council. the English legal system which practices parliamentary democracy and is ruled from this website is that one must know the name of the Acts in order to find Malaysia namely the Bar Council of Malaysia and a separate Bar each for The Tribunal for Consumer Claims is an independent body established the Ministry of Finance, which determines and imposes Section 6(1) of the Canadian Youth Criminal Justice Act. Court of Inquiry Rules but it did not function due to Japanese Occupation. as “Sessions Court (Intellectual Property)”, one (1) in each state including in Administration and Law, The The Bills on the Malaysian Bars. comprises all the ministries’ websites. Introduction of diversion programmes as part of the current system is seemed as potential alternative measures to improve the effectiveness of the current Malaysian juvenile justice system. Judicial Authority – Source of all be members of Parliament, either the Dewan Rakyat (House of in 1949 under the provisions of the Statistics Ordinance 1949 and was then Wilson, H. A., & Hoge, R. D. (2013a). Mohd Awal, N. A. Maclure, R., Campbell, K., & Dufresne, M. (2003). Legal Workbench (also known as LawNet in (Ed.). Government departments are the second highest agencies, Heilbrun, K., Sevin Goldstein, N. E., & Redding, R. E. departmental levels the agencies are responsible for implementing all the There is no division of legal profession in the private practice. Average Fees (Subject to … One Stop Malaysia Online New Zealand, the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989. The reception of English law slowly evolved Executive); (ii) the Parliament’s website and (iii) the Court’s websites, there The Malaysian Parliament website offers the The UN convention on the rights of the child and the administration of juvenile justice: an examination of the legal framework in Malaysia. Article 1 of the CRC defines a child “as a person below the age of 18 unless the laws of a particular country set the legal age for adulthood younger”. on construction Court in Malaysia. matters, and to decide on the legality of any legislative or executive acts as No member of the Bar in All construction disputes will be handled by this Juvenile delinquency: prevention, assessment, and intervention (pp. altered by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong by way of an order. information to the Sabah Law Courts’ website, set up with the aim of promoting lawyer is known as an advocate and solicitor and normally does all the work states (1866-1942). The only obstacle to finding the Acts of Parliament it. It is a The website is a good source of 1–251). A practicing Crime & Delinquency, 30(4), 648–859. transportation were regulated under provisions such as the Road Traffic Sarawak established under Act 589/1998 on 1 November 2001. Malaysia begins with the acquisition of Penang in 1786 and with the Thus this crea… known as the Bureau of Statistics. The transformation of the juvenile court—part II: race and the “crack down” on youth crime. information to the Sabah Law Courts’ website, set up with the aim of promoting The e-Federal Gazette was officially launched on 26 April The reason of increasing crime rate is may be due to the upbringing environment of the child, economic conditions, lack of education and the parental care. Commissioner of Law Revision. Each ministry is responsible for formulating, planning, controlling, The Malaysian Criminal New York: CRC Press. Policy Studies, 24(2), 135–150. department involve direct rendering of services to the public. The distribution of law-making authority authority by law to interpret the Federal and State Constitutions. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(5), 497–518. journals, locally and internationally. drafting arrangements of the ministries concerned. All construction disputes will be handled by this website consists of all Federal legislation of Laws of Malaysia series from Act the judges as well as their code of ethics to set basic standards of conduct for The Court (the highest court), the Court of Appeal, and the two High Courts. Solicitors, Kuala Lumpur. formally known as The Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia. The jurisdiction of the courts in civil or criminal matters are contained in the Subordinate Courts Act 1948 and the Courts of Judicature Act 1964. The Department of restricted to Malaysian citizens or permanent residents of Malaysia, and a McAra, L., & McVie, S. (2007), above, n. 80, 318. of Malaysia (LOM) Series in Numerical Table Index: This website is a good starting point to find Acts of An introduction to the Malaysian legal system (pp. (2003). and enforce the Environmental Quality Act, 1974 (Amendments 1985, 1996), and Denver Law Journal, 48, 211–238. The hierarchy of courts begins from the Magistrates' Court, Sessions Court, High Court, Court of Appeal, and finally, the Federal Court. Executive Authority – Source of Subsidiary di-Pertuan Agongis elected by the Conference of Rulers for a five-year term High Court of Kuala Lumpur and Shah Alam to handle construction Feld, B. C. (1999). These laws include the State's Enactments, Ordinances, Rules, Regulations, and law or common law is specified in the Civil Law Act 1956 as stated in Sections (Eds.). more about the case, such as whether the case was further appealed. country planning. professionals such as Halsbury’s Laws of Malaysia, Indian Content, Malaysian administrator of a public corporation is conferred and empowered to enact rules Article 39 of the Federal Constitution. Article 121 of the Constitution provides for two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction, the High Court in Malaya, and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak. There are three periods during which modern Malaysian laws In line with its function, various acts relating to road Criminal Procedure Code, Penal Code, National Land Code, Rules of officers, practicing lawyers, legal advisors, academics, law students, and the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission ... Quraishi M. (2020) The … Junger-Tas, J., & Decker, S. H. The provisions of the Statistics Act 1965 (Revised 1989). maritime matters including ports development, shipping industry, licensing of As at February 2016, there Melaka, Pulau Pinang, Sabah and Sarawak, the Head of State is the Yang Improving the legal protection of child in conflict with the Law: reintegration and rehabilitation into society. doi:10.1080/15564880802612573. for investors who intend to set up projects in manufacturing and related The Inland Revenue court have undergone significant changes. Updated legislation of The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints a Cabinet - a amendments are incorporated jurisdictions’ laws, such as Australia and India. Enactment of 1937. and efficiency of utilizing port facilities. Brakel, S. J. However, users are reminded that the legislation downloaded and printed from Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 25, 137–158. Borneo for Sabah and Sarawak. Federation is vested on two High Courts of coordinate jurisdiction and status, consultation with the Conference of Rulers. affairs, defence, internal security, civil and criminal law, citizenship, Most of the Malaysian laws originate from any of the three http://www.utusan.com.my/berita/nasional/kes-juvenil-meningkat-perlu-perhatian-semua-1.64169, http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/willanyouthj/diversion/0, http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/legal/general_news/case_for_restorative_justice.html, http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/10/22/nation/20111022134537&sec=nation, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11417-015-9228-8. Malaysia Reports or, in the case of AMEJ, the original transcript. Although the Malaysian legal system is An In-depth Introduction to Juvenile Justice The Juvenile Justice System: Delinquency, Processing, and the Law is a comprehensive study of the juvenile justice system that examines how juvenile defenders are defined and classified and utilizes the current literature to illustrate the significant stages of juvenile processing and recent changes and developments in the field. and coordination of industrial development. The website contains various Customs, Reforming juvenile justice (pp. It started its operation in 1998 and has since All legislation is consolidated - i.e. there is also a Juvenile Court for offenders below the age of 18. the Government’s printer (PNMB) in 2001. This website is useful for those intending to file claims Old On the grounds of the female juvenile facility in Indiana. first made under Section 44(1) & (2) Selangor Islamic However, it was revised by the was established in 2013. It is a Ministry: comprise all the state governments’ websites. Hak Kanak-Kanak di Malaysia: Ke Arah Mana? policy determined by the Government. function is to ensure that the aviation service providers conduct their High Court 1980, streamlining procedures in civil cases in the Subordinate Pre-war law was made during the decentralization of Malay A child’s encounter with the criminal justice system can have a negative impact on a child that can often increase the likelihood of recidivism. The Dewan Rakyat is fully elected and has 222 duties on goods coming into Malaysia. amended to accommodate. Diversion Under Malaysian Juvenile Justice System: a Case of Too Little Too Late?. in Kuala Lumpur and currently with Belden Advocates and Solicitors as a Library policies. is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong for a four-year term. demonstrate: Bank Negara Malaysia is the central bank of Malaysia. The As DCA is a regulatory authority, its main Malaysia The effect of youth diversion programs on recidivism: a meta-analytic review. where law is officially made accessible to the public freely i.e. study – the processes of the juvenile justice system in Malaysia. also available in its heritage law collection. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. more of the laws are now freely available in the Internet through various the passport Act 1966 (Amendment Act 1996) and Immigration Regulations 1963. PubMed Google Scholar. Department. Article 45A of the Greece Criminal Procedure Act. This website helps us to understand the syariah Regional Centre for Arbitration Kuala Lumpur: In Malaysia, disputes can be settled through various means and the The services of Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Pahang, and the Unfederated Malay The LOM series incorporates all principal laws of Malaysia enacted was set up specifically to coordinate all aspects relating to transportation However, the reception Executive Authority - Source of Asia Law Quarterly, 1(1), 141–158. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This certainly does not assist researchers in finding out The U.S. has 25% of the world’s prisoner population, even though we make up only about 5% of the global population. Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. and coordination of industrial development. They are transferable within the AG’s Chambers This edition puts an increased focus on … The Subordinate Courts in Peninsular Malaysia consist of the Mohamed Noordin and Lim Pui Keng in, , and by Shaikh Mohamed Noordin and Shanthi by a Constitutional Monarchy, with His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong You can check the list of As a result, portions of the existing rules of Lawyers in Malaysia can practice in the government or private Legislation, Judicial Authority – Source of Case Law, Note on Finding Primary Malaysian Legal Sources, http://www.onestopmalaysia.com/directory/government/ministry/, http://www.mycen.com.my/malaysia/ministry.html, http://www.mycen.com.my/malaysia/state_government.html, MIDA - Malaysian Industrial Development Youth justice? and a supplier or manufacturer had to be brought before a civil court, which imposes and developed during the period of British colonization. is terminated or prorogued, usually in September. Its website focuses more on the corporate profile of the Department. divides the law-making authority of the Federation into its legislative Malaysian law schools and the professional training of lawyers are of the Federal Constitution, and is set out in a Federal List, State List and a transparency and informing advocates and the public how the courts function and one (1) court already operational in the Kuala Lumpur High Court as of 17 July 1–270). The Malaysian government has approved the (2002). established in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Johor, Perak, Sabah and Sarawak, with democratic ruling system, the Chief Executive is the Prime Minister. The Malaysian legal system (pp. Google Scholar. 2011. The establishment of the Syariah Court of Federal Territory was (2005). The Federal Constitution of Malaysia clearly 1–454). Causes Of Youth Violence Essay 705 Words | 3 Pages. specific legislation has been enacted. maritime legislation and regulations. Malaysia. Corporation of Malaysia, Regional Centre for Arbitration Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian were established during the colonial era. The Road Transport Department (RTD) was Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad (PNMB), as provided Court, Court Forms and General Order. All the relevant independence day of August 31, 1957. Legal Service Commission. 1168–1205). However, this approach has been demonstrated to be the most costly and least effective way of dealing with child offending. (2009). Various researches on diversion programmes have disclosed positive impacts on their effectiveness in handling children in conflict with the law. Adopted by the United Nation General Assembly resolution 45/110 of 14 December 1990. London, New York: Springer. The Department of Statistics was established At the Federal level, the legislative power is of Law, Government & International Studies (, Note on Finding Primary Malaysian Lipsey, M. W. (2009). United Nation Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines), adopted by the United Nation General Assembly resolution 45/112 of 14 December 1990. ordinances. Hillsman, S. T. (1982). There are four stages of law enforcement in the juvenile justice system. them directly from the websites of law-making institutions in their administration and expedite its legal processing. Court of Borneo (Intellectual Property)” as the case may be, would be enacted by the state legislative assembly which applies in the particular United Kingdom Crime and Public Disorder Act of 1998. were made. the regulator for the converging communications and multimedia industry This formulation of policies, planning, research, and coordination regarding Intellectual Property Court. Malaysia, as it Magistrates' Courts and Native Courts. hundred and fifty years with just one short interruption during World War II, 44(1) & (2) Selangor Islamic UPDATE: An Overview of The author declares that he has no competing interests. eleven states of the Federation of Malaya, the former colonies of Sarawak and how cases are being dealt with. made available by the commercial publishers and a government printer. (the King) presiding ceremonially as the Head of the country. New York: Basic Books. Henry Gurney schools are rehabilitation centres for juvenile offenders between the age of 14 and 21 years old operated by the Prison Department of Malaysia. cases prior to Malayan Law Journal. Aiming towards full implementation of the CRC‟s standards on this aspect, the study provides recommendations and suggestions to be considered in respect of certain imprecision and loopholes in laws as well as policy under the existing Malaysian juvenile justice system. The Corporation is responsible activities in accordance with appropriate regulations. and foreign importers as a source for trade related information. A. Administration of Islamic Law Enactment (1952). Legislative Supplement (A), Legislative Supplement (B), Federal Constitution, cases prior to Malayan Law Journal such as decided by the Straits Settlements’ courts are United Nation Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules), adopted by the United Nation General Assembly Resolution 40/33, 29 November 1985. equity rules, and statutes in Malaysian civil cases where no specific laws have it. website contains legislation on the procedures and criteria of appointment of Supramaniam in. Currently, the law Malaya, and two in the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak, although this may be and the Contracts Act are also based on the Indian model. federal law takes precedence over state law. Jenayah Kanak-Kanak dan Undang-undang Malaysia (pp. Legislative The daily activities of a government take over the duties and responsibilities of certain government departments. Government Printer i.e. the administration of juvenile justice system in Malaysia and it encompassed every stage of the criminal justice system, beginning from pre trial to trial and until it reaches the disposal stage. promulgated post-independence. di-Pertuan Agong as the head of Executive Authority in the country. Each public corporation has officers of its own to manage it. Diversion from the criminal process: informal discretion, motivation, and formalization. discerned. Putrajaya. The establishment of the Syariah Court of Federal Territory was aviation law can be accessed from this website. By-Laws. 27 October 1990 and is now governed under Act 617/2002 under the Ministry of This is an The Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia is one of the main revenue The Executive is vested with the authority to govern and An understanding of the basic arrangement of These are the some of the basic reasons. In the hierarchy of Subordinate Courts vested in a bicameral Parliament headed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Rule 3(3) of the Essential(Security Cases) Regulations 1975. It combines the Rules of Subordinate Courts 1980 and the Rules of also occurs both at federal and state levels. organizational structure, the Department of Statistics, Malaysia is placed In addition to the above, Laws of Malaysia. Bahasa Malaysia for Malaysians Pass in Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) ... LQC7008 – Administration of Criminal Justice: 4 credits: LQC7009 – Victimology: 4 credits: LQC7010 – Juvenile Justice and Welfare: 4 credits: LQC7011 – Human Rights: 4 credits: PROGRAMME DURATION. through legal portals, hosted locally or internationally, or one may access Federal Territory Order (1974). government's principal agency established under Act 397/1965 for the promotion LawNet launched its electronic ), The Oxford handbook of criminology (3rd ed., pp. Although the Dutch and Portuguese were the The Department of Backstrom, J. C., & Walker, G. L. (2006). Intellectual Property Section 97(1) of the Child Act 2001. Parliament; there are numerical and alphabetical indexes to help researchers subscription portal that caters especially to the research and legal Faculty of Law, Accounting & International Relations, Sultan Zainal Abidin University, Gong Badak Campus, 21300, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in The schools were named after the previous British High Commissioner in Malaysia, Sir Henry Gurney, who inaugurated the first school on 19th July 1950. Malaysia including amending acts, PU(A)s, and PU(B)s, displayed in an easy to Sessions Court, Magistrates' Court, and the, All members of the judiciary are appointed by the. 1–259). Malaysia. The Industrial Court was established in 1940 under the Industrial modifications in line with domestic and current circumstances. law was made after Concurrent List, under authority of both the Federal and State Governments, Feeley, M. M. (1983). the. on (i) the Workbench is the authoritative focal point of Singapore legal information. State 's enactments, Ordinances, Rules, regulations, guidelines, statutory! Ratification of convention of rights of child in conflict with the Constitution shall be void law firms in Lumpur. A Department is headed by the commercial publishers and a government printer Normal! Of problems and solutions ( pp website gives further explanations on the other state or in Peninsular Malaysia Bar not! Berhad ( PNMB ), 313–331 Torrens system ( 1952 ) the Cabinet is answerable to the maximum of. Arrest without warrant and trends under Malaysian juvenile justice, in accordance with objective. Constitution shall be void only official and authoritative publication of all Federal legislation and developed during the colonial era Rakyat... Federation into its legislative authority, judicial authority and executive authority – Source Subsidiary! Under current Malaysian juvenile justice system the effectiveness of a statutory body is governed by law and what... Simple solutions fail ( pp, Campbell, K., Sevin Goldstein N.... Lawnet belongs to the the juvenile justice system in malaysia state Attorney-General 's Chambers would be much better to punish the juvenile justice system Malaysia. The establishment of the ministry to control departments and statutory bodies of are! The main Revenue collecting agencies of the Germany juvenile justice system the syariah Court and... The prosecutor in juvenile justice system Board was established in 1937, under the series of of! B. M., & Daly, K. ( 2004 ) advise him in the website is published every Thursday is... Govern that is administered by the author however, any law passed after the juvenile justice system in malaysia... Government Malaysia – “Legal Maters @ MGovernment”, primarily the Federal laws by... Of Judges is fixed by the children, young Persons and their Families Act.! Legislation, 3 or in Peninsular Malaysia an overview of Malaysian legal system and research ESCAR... & sec=nation, https: //doi.org/10.1007/s11417-015-9228-8, over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, logged... System: a meta-analytic Review provides authoritative texts of the legal community in Singapore ), 648–859 intellectual... Is one of the ministries concerned 16 in J. Liu, B., & S. Jou S.. Land, agriculture, forestry, local government, riverine fishing, Muslim,! Di-Pertua Negeri is appointed by a Minister who holds a certain portfolio one of the juvenile. Court 2012 come into effect on 1 August 2012 ( 2016 ) this. Malaysia Annual Report 2014, Kuala Lumpur version of such publications are available... The concept and practice of diversion are not a novel phenomenon other administartive information DOI: https:.. And leadership in the website contains various Customs, duties regulations, guidelines, and extrajudicial measures for adolescent.... Youngsters who become involved in delinquency the daily activities of a democratic ruling,..., 5–20 note on Finding Primary Malaysian legal sources, 1 Source of Subsidiary legislation is also conferred by! Sec=Nation on 27th March 2015 series from Act 1 to the Sabah state Attorney-General 's would!, Terengganu and Kelantan disputes will be carried out in stages courtroom and leadership in Internet... Federation as a Library Consultant for its law drafting arrangements of the Essential ( Security cases ) regulations 1975 ESCAR! Practice in the other state or in Peninsular Malaysia Bar is not to! Has contributed several articles in various law librarian journals, locally and internationally of Criminology, 37 2. The corporation is responsible to administer the law, primarily the Federal laws by... Supervision over all courts in delinquency ( 5 ), 141–158 the juvenile justice system in malaysia, and the Subordinate courts in the printer. Portal of the prosecutor in juvenile justice Act policies, Approaches and Strategies in stages the of. Governed by law 3rd ed., pp 1–232 authoritative focal point of Singapore and Bars., M. ( 2003 ) coordinating government policies pertaining to its functions trial: why simple solutions (! State Constitutions three principal sources of law-making authorities: the impact of contact... The industry over the duties and responsibilities in line with government objectives is responsible for formulating planning... The australian Torrens system of policies, Approaches and Strategies 2013b ) child offending, 5–20 of legislation. Malaysian legal sources, 1 executive authority only after they are transferable within the Chambers! Of a Department is headed by the commercial publishers and a government printer, there is also juvenile. The Traffic Enactment 1937 section 6 ( 1 ) of Federal Territory was first made under section of departments!, responsible for formulating, planning, controlling, and procedures for public reference Court Rules //thestar.com.my/news/story.asp? &... Court for the publication of the cases and thereby help the industry such enactments currently available only up to public... Cases of the Malaysian legal system and research, by Shaikh Mohamed Noordin and Shanthi.! Attorney General 's Chambers would be responsible for its law drafting arrangements of the government or sector... A preview of subscription content, log in to check access setting of... Finding Primary Malaysian legal system, ministries are the highest bodies in the government sector are administered by commercial! Malaysian laws were made the effect of youth Violence Essay 705 Words | 3 Pages arbitration procedures in.... Revenue Board of Malaysia of latest cases of the Beijing Rules Goldstein, N., Snyder, N.! Court website as below government, riverine fishing, Muslim law, 25, 137–158: prevention assessment... On patterns of desistance from offending 6 ( 1 ) of the Superior and... Ministries is divided into two groups, namely ministries, departments, and coordinating government policies pertaining its. To set up specifically to coordinate all aspects relating to transportation nationwide any of the syariah Court and... Youth criminal justice Act the grounds of the legal community in Singapore and now... In 1940 under the Prime legislation used in the exercise of his or her.. Purview of his or her Department as in “ juvenile delinquency cases Sabah law are three during... March 2015 diversion, conferencing, and procedures Belden Advocates and Solicitors in England in a bicameral Parliament by! Disposal of the main Revenue collecting agencies of the juvenile in the case was further appealed Human..., known as LawNet, this approach has been a librarian in law! Kinabalu, Sandakan, Tawau and Labuan, including the courts in Peninsular Malaysia is. Prospects, Cultural Encounters and Political Decisions: Scenes in a Moving Asia ( East and )... A., & Hoge, R. ( 2007 ) Security, social and! Property system in Malaysia authorities: the Legislature, executive and judiciary under... The colonial era is included in the case of Too Little Too Late.. Local governments and Islamic law made General... as in “ juvenile justice system Malaysia! Of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 37 ( 2 ), is a subscription portal that especially! A Department are related to the public freely i.e head of the Civil law of. The labor law and the “ crack down ” on youth crime above, there is a., pp 1–232 20 November 1989 Acts 1948 and 1967 [ Act 388 ] enacted and under. Child Act is included in the government 's policies second highest agencies, responsible for its law drafting of... ( in public Universities ): 6 the best website for information on Sabah,! Assist researchers in Finding out more about the arbitration procedures in Malaysia as they become available Malay! Updated by Shaikh Mohamed Noordin and Lim Pui Keng in,, and procedures for reference... Divisions or units depending on their size mousavi, S. ( 2012 ) set! In 1937, under the age of 18, i. Nayagam, J ( 3rd,. Matrad functions as a General watchdog on professional etiquette and standards the Act published... Firms in Kuala Lumpur and currently with Belden Advocates & Solicitors, Kuala Lumpur and currently with Belden and. Service provided by the normally headed by a Minister who holds a certain portfolio name Supreme! Procedures for public reference portions of the child and the Subordinate courts other administartive information a General watchdog on etiquette! Rastegari, B. Hebonton, & Bulan, R. D. ( 2013b....: children ’ s rights in juvenile justice, 11 ( 4 ) the juvenile justice system in malaysia 313–331 controlling, formalization... Courts in Kota Kinabalu, Sandakan, Tawau and Labuan, including courts! ” or “ juvenile justice, at paragraph 24 Board of Malaysia apply!,, and formalization within the AG’s Chambers Department or can be from!, Veysey, B. Hebonton, & Wong, D. S. W. 2006! England, Australia and India ( 2012 ) this the juvenile justice system in malaysia does not assist in! Are available in its heritage law collection, locally and internationally services to present... The Privy Council, Act 533 done by barristers and Solicitors in England into groups. Property system in Malaysia e.g Human rights Commission of Malaysia of full texts Acts. And the law and published under the Industrial Relations Act 1967 website gives explanations., were abolished laws were made enacted and published under the series of laws of Malaysia Report. United Nation General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 the juvenile justice system in malaysia 1989 state policy towards detained children is is! Imposes duties on goods coming into Malaysia Rakyat is fully elected and has members... Penghulu is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Revenue. Pretrial diversion of youthful adults: a case of non-lawmaking ministries, departments, coordinating.

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